Also known as Douglas fir, this wood is often employed in buildings. Cherrybark oak (Q. pagodifolia) is a fairly common large tree of bottomland forests, similar to the upland Southern red oak (Q. falcata), of which it was formerly considered a variety. Steve Hurst/ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory/Wikimedia Commons, Steve Hurst/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Wikimedia Commons, (Robert H. Mohlenbrock/USDA SCS/Wikimedia Commons), (Plant Image Library/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0), (Linnaeus/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0), (DavetheMage/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0). There are some hard softwoods as well as soft hardwoods. It can occur as far east as New England and southern Quebec where the soils are mesic with relatively high pH. It is similar in appearance to the Green ash, making identification difficult. Common hardwood species include oak, maple, cherry, mahogany, and walnut. Over time, red alders build up the soil with their copious litter and enrich it with nitrogen compounds formed by symbiotic bacteria that live in little nodules on their roots. Rock elm or cork elm is a deciduous tree native primarily to the Midwestern United States and along the prairie and forest edge. Although it is usually found on wet bottomlands, it grows on dry sites and also grows well on poor soils low in nutrients. Slippery elm is reputedly less susceptible to Dutch elm disease than other North American elms but is severely damaged by the Elm Leaf Beetle. ), maple (Acer spp. Black cottonwood, also known as western balsam poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to the upper western North America. Branch of a bitternut hickory with developing nuts. … Betula alleghaniensis is the provincial tree of Québec, where it is commonly called merisier, a name which in France is used for the wild cherry. S. albidum is a host plant for the spicebush swallowtail. ), oak (Quercus spp. This area comprises the border where trees transition to prairie grassland. Acer rubrum or red maple is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern North America. Bitternut hickory is probably the most abundant and most uniformly distributed of all the hickories. This Guide features 20 of the most abundant and most often used Hardwood species. American holly typically grows as an understory tree in forests. This easily recognized and peeling birch bark is a winter staple food for moose even though the nutritional quality is poor. Some may actually be softer than many coniferous softwoods. The large, three to six-inch long by two to three-inch-wide, shiny, dark green leaves turn bright yellow in fall and are quite noticeable in the northeastern United States. The bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa, sometimes spelled burr oak, is a species of oak in the white oak group. About To Show Your Hardwood Floor The Door? Filter to list as you wish. Pignut hickory frequently grows on dry ridgetops and side slopes throughout its range but it is also common on moist sites, particularly in the mountains and Piedmont. Young sassafras seedlings are usually unlobed but older trees add unique mitten-shaped leaves with two or three lobes on other leaves. The tree never grows in pure stands. Hardwood is wood from dicot trees. A North American custom is to use holly and mistletoe for decorating of homes and churches. Green ash is the most widely distributed of all the American ashes. Although each of these type are different in more ways than one. White oak is less favored than red oak because it is difficult to transplant and has a slow growth rate. Ontologicalpuppy/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0, Jean-Pol GRANDMONT/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0. Wood hardness varies among the hardwood species, and some are actually softer than some softwoods. This oak is immediately recognized by rounded lobes plus the lobe tips never have bristles like red oak. As they age, the bark acquires a more rough, rigid appearance that is brownish-gray in color. ), birch (Betula spp. It’s great if you need to keep a fire going at night. Carya illinoensis is an excellent multipurpose tree for the home landscape because it provides nuts and grand aesthetic value. The tree grows largest in the lower Ohio River Basin. Live oak can grow to 80 feet tall with an equal or greater spread. Green ash is seriously threatened in some areas, particularly Michigan, by the emerald ash borer, a beetle introduced accidentally from Asia, to which it has no natural resistance. It grows moderately fast and produces acorns every 2 to 4 years that are used by wildlife for food. Acer macrophyllum leaf, Chirico Trail, Washington, USA. Red alder stands are eventually succeeded by Douglas fir, western hemlock, and Sitka spruce. Shagbark hickory wood is used for smoking meat and was used for making the bows of Native Americans of the northern area. Still, it has been planted in cities and on farms because of its rapid growth. Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), is a large, long-lived tree that grows in southern swamps and flood plains where its root system is periodically underwater. To distinguish different species of trees, you need to examine the tree’s form, bark, leaf or needle, and fruit. The wood is the hardest and heaviest of all elms. Identifying the Types of Tree Leaves. Persimmon bark is gray or black and distinctly blocky with orange in the cracks between the blocks. Branches usually grow at different levels and never more than two at the same level. Both the post oak and the blackjack oak are the major trees of the "Cross Timbers" area in Texas and Oklahoma. Hardwoods most often are deciduous trees, usually showcasing broad, flat leaves and dense inner wood. Other types of hardwood trees in American forests include: Birch; Aspen; Alder; Sycamore; Biologists contract hardwood trees with softwood trees. This hickory is distinguished from other hickories by large leaves, large nuts and orange twigs. Osage Orange Fruit, Maclura pomifera. The wood resembles elm but is difficult to work, rots easily and is a bad choice for planting in the landscape. ALDERASHASPENBASSWOODBIRCHCHERRYCOTTONWOOD, Dark wood paneling used just right | Erika Bierman Photography WS&A Public Relations reBUILD Workshop Veranda Designer Homes,,, Incorporate American hardwoods into you homes and businesses to lessen climate change |, © 2020 Hardwood Manufacturers Association, How Selecting Materials Impacts Our Lives, Trend Alert: Wood Planks Warm up Ceilings and Walls, From modest to magnificent: Create an entertainment space for any home. It produces small (edible) berries that turn orange-red to dark purple. Sourwood is one of the first trees to turn colors in the eastern forest. Hardwood: Trees with broad, flat leaves as opposed to coniferous or needled trees. In addition to sassafras' value to wildlife, the tree provides wood for a variety of uses. Although American beech wood is heavy, hard, tough and strong, the tree is typically left during lumbering and often left uncut to grow. This tree makes a handsome shade tree. The fall color of sourwood is a striking red and orange and associated with blackgum and sassafras. Pignut hickory (Carya glabra) is a common but not abundant species in the oak-hickory forest association in the Eastern United States. The bark is highly weather-resistant. The oak is popular due to an attractive pyramidal shape and straight, dominant trunk, even on older specimens and because of availability. It is a tree that tends to occur singly as scattered specimens, rather than in groves. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Young osage orange trees can develop an upright, pyramidal habit and the fruit is unique, rough textured, heavy green balls which ripen to yellow-green and fall in October and November. Sherwood, Oregon. Shagbark hickory has the most distinctive of all the hickory bark because of its loose-plated bark. Red Oak (Quercus rubra). The large acorns with hardened cups that enclose all or most of the nut are diagnostic. It can be saved for planting in wet areas or where nothing else will thrive. Trees of North Carolina A Free, On-Line Plant Identification tool Featuring native and naturalized trees of North Carolina. Isolated trees seem to be less susceptible to the disease while mass plantings tend to exacerbate the problems. Naturally a moist bottomland or stream bank tree, it is hardy to climatic extremes. There are five main types of hardwood. Aspens do produce seeds but seldom grow from them. Black willow is named for its dark gray-brown bark. Eliminating Finish Blotches on Maple and Cherry, The Confident Choice for Eco-conscious Specifiers, American Hardwoods: The Natural, Eco-Friendly Choice, Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts (Red Oak), Fixing Cracks and Squeaks in Hardwood Floors, Installing a Hardwood Floor Over a Concrete Slab, How to Install Hardwood Floors Over Radiant Heat, How to Apply Specialty Finishes for Hardwood Trim, American Hardwoods and Their Role in Carbon Neutral Design. Overcup oak is a medium-sized deciduous oak that is valued as a "white oak" wood. That being said, I really enjoyed reading this article. The Southern magnolia is the state tree of Mississippi and the state flower of Mississippi and Louisiana. Another name for a hardwood tree is, appropriately, broadleaf. The white oak family members also include the bur oak, chestnut oak, and Oregon white oak. Hardwood: Trees with broad, flat leaves as opposed to coniferous or needled trees. sylvatica) and swamp tupelo (var. In the autumn they usually change color and drop. The less than "respectable" maple is not particularly desired in the landscape because of rapid trunk rotting, prolific sprouting and branch shedding. It is abundant further south on the southern coast and in the Gulf states, reaching its greatest size on the bottomlands of southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. The range of pignut hickory covers nearly all of eastern United States. The Latin "laurifolia" means laurel-leaved or having leaves like a laurel. There are differences between the physical structures of hardwoods and softwoods. It is a large forest tree of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Ontario) but become smaller in the southern range. It is rare in the north of its range (New England and New York) and always small there. So what is a softwood tree? Sugar maple is an immensely important species to the ecology of many forests in North America. Deciduous trees drop their leaves in the fall while coniferous trees keep their needles year round, except for tamarack which drops its needles in the fall. Click below to view a particular species profile or download the guide. The tree is the largest and most important New World willow and is one of the first trees to bud in the spring. Illinois State Champion cherrybark oak in (Quercus pagoda) Cache River State Natural Area. A number of cultivars have very attractive bark and selected for garden planting, including 'Heritage' and 'Dura Heat.' Cucumber magnolia is one of the largest magnolias and one of the cold-hardiest. Scroll over the materials below for a 'snap shot' of their properties and click to learn more. It is also the most extensively utilized of any native alder species. The American beech is a shade-tolerant species, favoring the shade more than other trees, and commonly found in forests in the final stage of succession called a climax forest. As a result, many areas today still have extensive groves of old beeches. We have listed them by scientific name because it is a constant and does not vary region to region or person to person. Often these types of trees are harvested to make lost-lasting furniture, decks, flooring, and construction. Black cherry is prone to storm damage with branches breaking easily but any resulting decay progresses slowly. The avenue of live oaks at Oak Alley Plantation in Vacherie, Louisiana, planted in the early 18th century. The Guide to American Hardwood Species. Popular European and American hardwood trees are maple, oak, cherry, beech and ash. These trees bloom in the spring and in their youngest stage will have smooth, dark green bark. The tree hates shade (intolerant) and best growth occurs in a sunny open location and a moist rich soil, common along stream banks in its native habitat. It is now being replaced by better trees like London planetree (Platanus X acerfolia) and Japanese zelkova (Zelkova serrata). Hardwood species are not always necessarily stronger than softwoods, but many species are well known for their beautiful and distinct wood grain patterns. Mockernut hickory is very common and abundant southward through Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida but grows from Massachusetts south to northern Florida, west to Kansas and Texas and up to Iowa. Some of the most popular species of hardwoods are oak, maple, hickory, walnut, and cherry trees. Live oak is the state tree of Georgia and a favorite in the coastal landscape. Hardwood (which come from angiosperm trees) contrasts with softwood (which are from gymnosperm trees). In the Midwest, it is seen growing mostly in old fields with other sunlight loving species, such as black walnut, black locust, and hackberry. Black walnut wood is now relatively scarce and highly coveted, used mainly for high-quality woodworking and produces a delicious nut. It is one of the few commercially important species found on poorly drained clay flats and low bottoms of the Gulf Coastal Plain and north in the Mississippi and Red River Valleys. The Balm-of-Gilead poplar tree is an ornamental clone and hybrid of this tree. Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) is best known for its brilliant autumn color. For this reason, it can grow on poor soils, increase soil fertility and is an early colonizer of disturbed areas. It’s the slowest timber to season and is best used in a mix of different types of logs. As the tallest eastern hardwood tree, Yellow Poplars can grow to over 160 feet tall in the wild of The Appalachian Mountains. The name White ash derives from the blueish white undersides of the leaves. Additionally, each species is shown in clear, light, medium and dark finishes to help visualize stain combinations of flooring, cabinetry, moulding and furniture co-existing in a single design space. The leaf is unique, some saying it looks like an "Egyptian pyramid, with its coarse teeth as stone steps." Birch, River. Fir Softwood. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska south to southern California. As a resource, American Hardwoods are abundant, renewing and sustainable, and an excellent choice for eco-effective design and building. Laurel oak or (Quercus laurifolia) is commonly used as an ornamental tree in landscaping because of its fast growth and pleasing appearance; it is planted with little regard to soil type. Walter Siegmund/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.5, Jerzy Opioła/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0, W.D. White ash is widely grown as an ornamental tree in North America. Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii) is one of the largest Southern red oaks. The large seed crops provide food to many kinds of wildlife. Widely available U.S. softwood trees include cedar, fir, hemlock, pine, … Hardwood trees usually have broad, flat leaves as opposed to coniferous, needled, or scaled tree foliage. There are several types of birch trees found in the area, but the easiest to identify is the white birch because of its… Commercial overcup oak varies extremely with every site, fire damage, and degree of insect and decay defect. Its hickory nut is edible and has a very sweet taste. It is a quite ordinary oak with a unique acorn. Nuttall oak is also an important species for wildlife management because of heavy annual nut or "mast" production. How Much Dimensional Change Should You Expect? Once extensively planted as a shade tree, Dutch elm disease has killed many of these. )/ BY 3.0 US, Michael Wolf/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0. American elm has long been very popular as a street or avenue tree but never really took to parks and cities. Pecan production is a multi-million dollar business and one of North America's favorite nuts. Each of these types is used well in construction because of their known strength and durability. Butternut is seriously threatened by an introduced canker disease called ​Melanconis. The medium to large willow oak has unique willow-like foliage and is known for its rapid growth and long life. Yellow birch thrives in moist woodlands and often seen on root stilts that have developed from seedlings that have grown on and over rotting stumps. It is a moderately long-lived tree, with ages of up to 258 years known. The osage orange creates a dense canopy, making it useful as a windbreak. Let's take a look at the most common angiosperms, otherwise known as deciduous hardwoods. Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) is divided into two commonly recognized varieties, typical black tupelo (var. Sweetgum is easy to identify in both the summer and in winter. This Guide features 20 of the most abundant and most often used Hardwood species. In addition to the basics – where they grow, general description, and abundance – each Hardwood profile includes working and physical properties, availability, strength and mechanical properties, and main uses. Welcome to the Mississippi A-Z native species list. While river birch's native habitat is wet ground, it will grow on higher land, and its bark is … This not only benefits the tree itself but also many other plants growing around it. Similarly, we expect softwood to be soft and light. Silver maple is closely related to the red maple and can hybridize with it, the hybrid being known as the Freeman maple (Acer x freemanii). Northern red oak is an easily transplanted, popular shade tree with good form and dense foliage. Look for the star-shaped leaf as foliage grows in the spring and look for the dried seed balls in and under the tree. The Angel Oak near Charleston, South Carolina, is a live oak that has been determined to be the oldest tree in the eastern United States at 1400 years. Best development is in the Ohio River Basin. The wood is extremely hard, resistant to rot and longlasting, making it prized for fence posts and small watercraft. Red Alder male catkins with tiny female catkins above and a vegetative bud above left. Populus trichocarpa male catkin and leaf buds. Live oak is a symbolic tree of the Deep South. With its dense crown, flowering dogwood provides good shade, and due to its small stature, it is useful in the smallest yards. Basswood is a prolific sprouting tree and can even form clumps from stumps. ), box elder (Acer negundo), locust (Robinia spp. Pecan is, economically, the most important member of the hickory family, of the genus Carya. Red maple is adaptable to a very wide range of site conditions, perhaps more so than any other tree in eastern North America. In 2016, a total of 436 kinds of woody plants were known to occur in the wild in Arkansas, comprising 419 species plus another seventeen varieties and subspecies. Because bitternut hickory wood is hard and durable, it is used for furniture, paneling, dowels, tool handles, and ladders. It is also known as the "princess-tree," empress-tree, or paulownia. Tree or Shrub? This single species' compatibility is fairly uncommon in the Quercus genus group. The names "Box Elder" and "Boxelder Maple" are based on the similarity of its whitish wood to that of boxwood and the similarity of its pinnately compound leaves with those of some species of elder. Dozens of red maple varieties have been developed and the tree is prized for its fall color. Within these general forest types were hundreds of species of woody plants and at least 148 species of trees. Brush/National Agricultural Library/Wikimedia Commons, Bill Cook/Michigan State University/ BY 3.0 US. Bur oak typically grows in the open, away from a forest canopy. Franklin Bonner/USFS (ret. Shellbark hickory nuts are the largest of all hickory nuts and are sweet and edible. Finchlake2000/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0, Ten Most Common Trees in the United States, Identification of the Most Common Hardwoods, Nice Shades: 7 Fast Growing Shade Trees to Slash Your Electric Bill, Identify Common Major Hickory Species in North America, Identifying the Yellow Poplar Tree in North America, The 5 Most Common North American Maple Trees, How to Identify Maple, Sycamore, Yellow-Poplar, and Sweetgum Leaves, How to Identify Common North American Trees, How to Identify Common North American Birch Trees, 11 of the Most Endangered Trees in America. Hardwood trees (or angiosperms as they are also known) have broad, flat leaves and are deciduous (Yew and Holly being exceptions). My husband and I spend a lot of time cutting, splitting and stacking wood in our solar dryer. Any oak with pointed, bristle-tipped leaf lobes belongs to the red oak group, including Northern red oak. Experts agree, American Hardwood sells! Although these trees are often called hardwoods, wood hardness varies among the hardwood species. Nearly 80 percent of harvested mockernut hickory trees are used to manufacture tool handles, for which its hardness, toughness, stiffness, and strength make it especially suitable. The tree has a slimy (slippery) inner bark, tastes like licorice and it has some food and medicinal value. Eastern cottonwood typically lives 70 to 100 years. Quickly following the flowers come new green leaves which turn a dark, blue-green and are uniquely heart-shaped. When viewed under a microscope, softwoods have no vi… Red alder is the largest native alder species in North America with a range confined to the western United States and Canada. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. Redbud is a small tree that shines early in spring (one of the first flowering plants) with leafless branches of magenta buds and pink flowers. It is normally seen along the larger river systems. Red maple is widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and in the landscape. Sugar maples engage in a "hydraulic lift," drawing water from lower soil layers and exuding that water into upper, drier soil layers. The name quaking aspen references the quaking or trembling of the leaves that occur in even a slight breeze due to the flattened petioles. The American holly is the state tree of Delaware. Winfield IL USA. Wood hardness varies among the hardwood species, and some are ... Deciduous Perennial plants which are normally leafless for some time during the year. ... Hardwood Swamps on sandy, moist soils. A favored shade tree, willow oak is widely planted as an ornamental. It is an excellent landscaping tree. All the red oaks, including Southern red oak, are the most prized hardwood species in the United States. In softwoods, medullary rays and tracheidstransport water and produce sap. It is also a good species to plant along margins of fluctuating-level reservoirs. The cherrybark tree has heavy strong wood and is considered a commercially desirable tree. Though commonly known as Garry oak in British Columbia, elsewhere it is usually called white oak, post oak, Oregon oak, Brewer oak, or shin oak. It’s additionally … Silver maple is a weak tree but often introduced in the landscape to the dismay of many who plant it. A lot of that popularity has been challenged because of iron-deficiency chlorosis, persistent brown leaves on the tree into the winter, and a ragged look with the stubby twig "pins" that stand out and is a negative to some. Scott Bauer/USDA Agricultural Research Servic/ BY 3.0 US. Other common names are spotted oak, Schneck oak, Shumard red oak, southern red oak, and swamp red oak. Hardwood is a type of wood that is produced from evergreen trees, like broad-leaf or deciduous trees. Find hardwood trees stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. The acorn or winter buds identify Nuttall oak, easily confused with pin oak (Q. palustris). Cercis canadensis often has a large crop of 2-4 inch seedpods that some find unappealing in the urban landscape. Types of hardwood and softwood explored. Black locust has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its root system. Native Americans used the wild birch's boiled sap as a sweetener similar to maple syrup, and the inner bark as a survival food. This beloved tree is the state tree of Missouri, North Carolina, and Virginia. Trees with superior genetics and located in a good growing environment.can potentially live 200 to 400 years. Softwood lumber … The alternate maple-looking leaves are large and also unique to those familiar with sycamore. While river birch's native habitat is wet ground, it will grow on higher land, and its bark is quite distinctive, making it a favored ornamental tree for landscape use. Slippery elm is one of the smallest native North American elms but with one of the largest leaves. Wildlife and people harvest most of the nuts and those remaining produce seedling trees readily. CONIFER TREES PINE FAMILY 60 Colorado Blue Spruce 61 Norway Spruce 62 Eastern Hemlock 63 Austrian Pine 64 Eastern White Pine 65 Loblolly Pine 66 Pitch Pine 67 Red Pine 68 Scotch Pine 69 Shortleaf Pine 70 Virgina Pine CYPRESS FAMILY 71 Eastern Redcedar INVASIVE TREES 72Callery Pear 73 Sawtooth Oak 74 Siberian Elm 75 Tree-of-Heaven 76 White Mulberry SPECIES ACCOUNTS Sweetgum grows from Connecticut southward throughout the east to central Florida and eastern Texas. Water oak is a medium-sized but rapid-growing tree and is often abundant as second growth on cutover lands. Royal paulownia is an introduced ornamental that has become well established in North America. The leaves on these hardwood trees tend to be broad. Hardwood Finishes More Eco-Friendly than Ever, Know your Hardwood Floors by Starting at the "Finish", Revealing Hardwood Treasure beneath Carpeting and Linoleum. (Peter Stevens/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0), Derek Ramsey/ Commons/GFDL 1.2, (United States Department of Agriculture/Wikimedia Commons). Black gum trees have moderate growth rate and longevity and are an excellent food source for wildlife, fine honey trees, and handsome ornamentals. It has been called the "humming tree.". In some cases, Wojtech says, the trees' wood is growing faster than the bark surrounding it, so it pushes outward against the bark. Eastern cottonwood has fast growth and a spreading root system that will control erosion but will also damage pavement and clog sewers. The Southern magnolia or bull bay, is a magnolia native to the southeastern United States, from coastal Virginia south to central Florida, and west to East Texas. The lumber is often cut and sold as red oak. Over 300 species of trees are native to Florida's woodlands. Its scientific name was chosen by David Douglas to honor Nicholas Garry, secretary and later deputy governor of the Hudson Bay Company, 1822-35. It is a lowland tree and grows scattered with other hardwoods on moist, well-drained soils associated with large and small streams. Tea is brewed from the bark of roots and leaves are used is as a thickener in soups and sauces. Maximize your home’s value. Sugar Maple is the major source of sap for making maple syrup and prized for furniture and flooring. As a resource, American Hardwoods are abundant, renewing and sustainable, and an excellent choice for eco-effective design and building. Hardwood trees represent a group of trees that have broad leaves, produce a fruit or nut, are mostly deciduous and go dormant in the winter. Juglans cinerea, commonly known as butternut or white walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada. Cultivars selected for superior fall color include 'Autumn Applause' and 'Autumn Purple.'. Red oak is the fastest growing of all oaks and when on the right site, one of the largest and longest-lived. Except for cleaning up the messy fruit if it falls on a patio or sidewalk, persimmon maintenance is quite easy and it could be planted more. Yellow poplar or tulip poplar is the tallest hardwood tree in North America with one of the most perfect and straight trunks in the forest. It is a very important keystone hardwood tree throughout the western American states and stunningly beautiful in Autumn. Emily Richardson/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0. (R. A. Nonenmacher/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0), Matt Lavin/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0, Ohio Department of Natural Resources/Wikimedia Commons. Oregon white oak is the only native oak in British Columbia and Washington and the principal one in Oregon. Dogwoods are among the earliest springtime blooming trees. Kayaking among water tupelo trees at Finch Lake Campground, Louisiana. The "Maltese cross" form of the distinctive post oak leaf is a key identifier. Black locust attracts bees and is a major honey plant in the eastern United States.

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